Yup, that's the BOSS log.
1) Cleaning: download TES5Edit from the link in the BOSS log, follow the instruction on the page, and clean the plugins flagged by BOSS as containing 'dirty edits' (including the update esm). You'll need to remove identical to master entries as well as undelete/disable deleted references.
2) Maintenance: check for error messages such as this and attend to them.
Warning: Contains unexpected (or out of order) records. A compatibility patch fixed and cleaned with TES5Edit can be obtained here. (Compatibility Patch)
Error records can cause CTDs, and are usually from plugins made with pre-Creation Kit tools. In this case, work on 'Weapons of the Third Era' has been discontinued by the author, and it has now been integrated into 'Immersive Weapons', so you do not need it. Uninstall WoTE using whatever mod manager you used to install it with (as to make sure the plugin and the meshes/textures are all removed). Also...
Headbomb's Better Sorting.esp
Note: Obsolete. Update to the latest renamed version, Headbomb's Better Sorting - *.esp
Update to the 'fixed' version of this mod or uninstall it.
3) Leveled lists: You are using a number of 'give more stuff to NPCs' mods that contain conflicting leveled list edits (e.g. Immersive Armour, Cloaks of Skyrim, Immersive Weapons). You should use Wrye Bash to generate a Bashed Patch which will automatically merge those conflicting leveled lists so they work nicely with each other (otherwise, some gears may not spawn properly on the NPCs).
There are a number of issues you noted which could be the cause of your CTDs. First, you mentioned you tried unsuccessfully to install Dual Sheath Redux. You also mentioned you are using the Skyrim HD 2k textures but did not indicate your system specs, so it's possible your system cannot handle it (post your specs). Either way, the best thing right now is to uninstall these mods, then start a new game and see if you can get past the Helgan tutorial without problems, so that multiple issues do not get compounded. Once we stabilize your game, we can then work on (re)installing those mods and getting them to work on your setup.