I have noticed that many mod makers do not take in to account ballistics of a weapon and the round that will be fired from it I don't know the actual workings of the mods ( because I can not get my GECK to work ) on many ocations I have taken a shot at a target from far beyond the actual effective range and had a critical kill
There are 3 Types of ballistics.
1) Internal - The interior workings of a weapon and the functioning of its ammunition.
2) External - The flight of the bullet from the muzzle to the target.
3) Terminal - What happens to the bullet after it hits the target.
Drag - The slowing effect the atmosphere has on a bullet. The higher the temperature, the less dense the air. A 20 degree change equals a one min. elevation change. ie. If the temperature is 20 degrees higher than on the day you zeroed your weapon, the the bullet will travel 1 inch higher at 100 meters, 2 inches at 200 meters, 3 inches at 300 meters, etc...
Altitude / barometric pressure - Sense the air is thinner at higher altitudes, the air is less dense and a bullet will strike the target higher.
Humidity - When humidity goes up the air becomes thicker and the bullet will strike low.
Bullet efficiency - The bullet's ballistic coefficient will effect the accuracy. A perfect bullet would be rated at 1.00. Match bullets range from .500 to .600. The 7.62-mm bullet that the M24 uses is rated at .530.
Components of a rifle round
Primer - used to ignite the powder and create a pressure seal.
Case - A container / creates an airtight seal in the chamber / assists in head space / creates uniformity of bullet placement in the chamber.
Powder - Heat and pressure push the bullet. Three types of powder are Flake, Ball, and Extruded. Powder burns at 47,000 lbs x the number of grains (weight).
When talking about ballistics, the Coriolis Effect refers to the deflection on the trajectory of the bullet generated by the spinning motion of the Earth. Its effect is negligible at medium distances, but becomes important around 1000yds and beyond, especially because it can add to other minimal errors and keep you off target.
the current (real world) longest confirmed kill was 2,475 m (2,707 yd) Accuracy International L115A3 ( mill desanation for the AI AWM (Arctic Warfare Magnum) ) using .338 Lapua Magnum LockBase B408 bullets
it seems that in the game world kills can be in excess of the stated real world