Currently the Boston Airport workshop and building area are only useful for building objects for a quest.
You cannot build food, a settlement beacon, or Scrap bench, etc, which is a shame since the spot rather appeals to me. I was looking forward to building a multi-story fortified outpost in this location but without settlers it would not feel right. You are allowed to place water resources and there is space for regular water pumps.
I am playing with the food planters mod so food would not be an issue.
Since mods are out that let you add to what can be built (planters, etc) I assume that it would not be too much different to turn Boston Airport into a working settlment by adding the missing objects?